Logistic regression is regressing data to a line (i.e. finding an average of sorts) so you can fit data to a particular equation and make predictions for your data. This type of regression is a good choice when modeling binary variables, which happen frequently in real life (e.g. work or don't work, marry or don't marry, buy a house or rent...). The logistic regression model is popular, in part, because it gives probabilities between 0 and 1. Let's say you were modeling a risk of credit default: values closer to 0 indicate a tiny risk, while values closer to 1 mean a very high risk. The following image shows an example of how one might tailor a logistic model for credit score based risk.
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Hilbe, J. (2016). Practical Guide to Logistic Regression. CRC Press.