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What should Java developers learn in 2021?


If you want to work effectively on Java projects as a developer in this competitive world, there are many things you should learn. You must have many skills, and what you should have depends on the position you. But according to the latest survey on Java programmer skills and the current market demand, here we will discuss the top 10 things a Java programmer should learn in 2021.

Essential skills for Java programmers

Are you a Java programmer or a working professional looking to switch to Java? Or are you a working Java programmer who wants to grow your career as a Java programmer? This article is then for you; in 2021, there are some advanced tools that Java developers should know.

1. Git

Git is one of the essential tools for JAVA developers and for every JAVA developer to learn it. Git is used to managing any set of projects with a version control system. It is an open-source system that is entirely free. It focuses mainly on non-linear workflows, integrity, and speed.

Linus Torvalds founded Git in 2005, and you can use the Git project directly as it is a complete version control system. We have listed some of Git’s features to help you learn more about Git.

Distributed extension: The repository helps Git to create a copy of the development history.

Linking approaches: Git has a toolkit-based design that provides a well-defined model.

Toolkit-based design: Toolkit-based design helps reduce the composite part.

Strong support for non-linear extension: Scaling and branching are two essential factors that Git offers. Git provides strong support for non-linear development.

Well-organized management of large projects: A locally stored repository helps manage large projects transparently.

Compatibility with existing systems and practices: There are various publishing tools such as FTP and HTTP that are mandatory for any technology. Git also supports these publishing tools.

2. Selenium

The Selenium web driver in Java is one of the technologies a Java developer should know in 2021. Selenium provides tools for testing web applications using test frameworks. Selenium Web Driver provides an open-source API. It includes automation features for web applications. Here are the critical elements of Selenium:

  • IDE (integrated development environment).
  • Remote Control/Selenium 1.0
  • Web Controller/Selenium 2.0/3.0
  • Selenium GRID

3. Jenkins

Jenkins is a technology derived from JAVA programming, as the open-source automation Continuous Delivery and Integration automate the software development process which supports various version control tools.

Jenkins has made its plugins available for integration with code written in another language. Here are three main reasons why you should choose Jenkins. It offers better quality software than others.

Because automated systems manage integration, development at Jenkins is much faster.

4. User-friendly web services

REST stands for Representative Translation of State. It is a suggestion that presents architectural style and is a must for Java developers. It improves web service performance. It also defines scalability and performance constraints. It is one of the most desirable things in 2021 for Java developers.

The recreational API use for communication in web service development. If you know HTML, CSS, etc., then you will benefit from RESTful web services. Below are the features of RESTful services:

The client-server-based architecture provides features such as administration, deployment, and hosting of servers. It also assists users in using services and resources. It is essentially a shared computing model in which resources share.

Statelessness is one of the main features of a REST service, where the server understands and provides all the data that makes up an HTTP REST request.

A cacheable architecture is the main reason for blocking web APIs and applications. Stack technology is not involved in this blocking. It is essential to cache for scalability.

The REST API supports multiple servers in a multi-tiered system, i.e., means that one can forward a request to another server if one server is busy. A multi-tiered system ensures fast response times for clients.

A unified interface provides a single resource identifier (URI) for storing records.

REST is an approach to describing any web service. It offers flexibility, scalability, and freedom to choose one technology and platform.

5.Spring security

Its primary function is application authentication. The J2EE servlet specification and the EJB specification are two key security features popular with JAVA developers.

Spring Security supports several authentication models. It integrates with various technologies such as HTTP, Kerberos, JOSSO, CAS, LDAP, etc. Spring Security is directly related to Java, which highly recommends that JAVA developers learn it.

6. Spring Boot 2.

Spring Boot has released a new version called Spring Boot 2. Spring Framework is responsible for the control, and Spring Boot is accountable for generating a standalone solution with a conventional configuration.

It is mainly dependent on JAVA Baseline, BOM material, and cradle plugins. Its automatic configuration provides security and responsiveness. It also provides technical support and improves the developer experience. It is one of the essential tools that a JAVA programmer should know. Key features of the Undertow loader

  • Deploy Undertow, Jetty, or Tomcat directly.
  • To reduce the build configuration, provide dependencies.
  • Create independent applications in spring.
  • Automatically configure spring attachments.
  • Provide complete security and technology support.
  • No code generation requires for XML configuration.

7. Angular or Responsive JS

A specific JavaScript library for UI development is called ReactJS, and Angular is a framework. These two key technologies should be familiar to the JAVA developer.

Angular 2 is a framework for web applications that can use in open source. The main features of Angular are Directives, scope, templates, annotations, advanced dependency injection, and child routers. ReactJS use for the development of mobile applications. The main features of ReactJS are:

Free and open-source’ Side communication with the server, Generators, and features, etc. 

8. Apache Spark and Kafka.

Apache Spark and Kafka are two must-have technologies for Java 2021 developers; they had a stable release at the end of 2018. Apache Spark is a framework for cluster computing that is available in open source.

Spark provides an application interface for tasks such as basic I/O, scheduling, and dispatching. It gives a stream processing platform that is also available as open source. In particular, the code of Apache Kafka in Java and Scala.

Kafka can use basic APIs such as Producer API, Consumer API, Connector API, and Stream API.

  • The main features of Apache Spark are.
  • Real-time stream processing
  • Integration
  • Advanced analysis
  • Multilingual support
  • Speed
  • Key features of Apache Kafka
  • No downtime
  • High performance
  • Reliable
  • Robustness
  • Data conversion
  • Replication
  • Docker


Docker is a language written in the Go language and developed on Linux. It is also an essential tool for learning Java 2021 developers. It provides tools that help containerization. It also had a stable release at the end of 2018. The container, or set of software packages, is managed by Docker.

10. Unit Testing

Unit testing is an essential skill for JAVA developers that you should learn in the coming year. For those working in Java, towards integration and unit testing, there are several tools and frameworks. For example, Cucumber for automated integration testing and the Robot framework. Mockito is also a tool that will help you use your unit testing skills.

11. Java 10, 11, or maybe 12

Java is one of the commonly utilized languages globally and is an essential skill for JAVA developers to know. It is defined as REPL (Real Evaluation Print Loop). in Java 9, the Java Shell precisely explained. There are known Java constructs such as declarations, objects, interfaces, and classes executed and tested in Java 9. You can also choose a higher version, such as Java 10, 11, or 12. Java 12 is the latest version of Java programming.

12. Spring framework 5.0

Java uses the Spring Framework as its application framework. Spring has a web framework called Spring WebFlux. Spring Framework 5 provides many functional API variants Spring Framework 5 is a dedicated framework that offers many helpful API variations and uses Java programming. Spring Framework 5.0 is a reliable framework that offers many functional API variants and uses Java programming; it is an updated Spring MVC version. 

13. DevOps

DevOps is also one of the essential things that Java developers needed to learn in 2021. DevOps is an effective way of operating software development. DevOps is an effective method for software development operations, shortening the development cycle of a system and providing updates, features, etc., to enterprise objects. It builds a closer relationship between processes and IT development, allowing for better collaboration and communication.

Key features of a successful DevOps implementation

  • In small steps
  • Support for existing systems
  • Using system translation
  • Deploying a DevOps toolkit

14. Groovy

Groovy is also one of the essential tools for Java developers to learn in 2021. Apache Groovy praises Java because it supports Java syntax. one of the best features of Groovy is that statically and dynamically. It can uses as a Java platform, and it can use as a scripting or programming language. It influences by Java, Python, Perl, and Ruby.

The last word

Here we have covered the best skills for Java developers to acquire to advance their career towards 2021. However, this doesn’t mean that Java developers should learn all of the above skills. As mentioned above, the skills are looked at by India’s top java app development companies.