Nowadays, if we look around, we can see that everything from jobs and entertainment to smart homes and vehicles depend on some type of computer software. So before the software is released to consumers it is essential that the software development companies run relevant tests and usage conditions. Even with the recent release of Cyberpunk 2077, developers have made certain that if not properly tested and verified, even a million-dollar project will end up just as a meme on the internet. Therefore, without any doubt, we can say that software testing is the most fundamental layer in the software development process, as it represents the process of quality validation and veriﬁcation of a software product. Testing must be done before deploying the software for use, this helps to discover errors on time and ensure the functionalities of the software works as necessary, it also minimizes defects discovered after the product has gone into use.
Software testing is a significant part of software quality assurance (SQA), it is an activity used for evaluating and improving software quality. It involves a set of activities carried out with the sole aim of finding errors in software. It validates and verifies if the software or product is functioning correctly without any errors or bugs capable of incurring defects. In the testing phase, the errors from previous cycles must be detected, this ensures complete software reliability and quality assurance.
With the development of software functionalities, it is essential to use innovative testing models and tools to ensure that time and cost spent on testing is thoroughly minimized. When it comes to testing the functionality of the software, there are two types; manual and automation. Manual testing is carried out by the tester. Informal review, inspection, walkthrough, and technical review are the techniques of manual testing. Manual testing is time-consuming and requires more effort, this is a major issue with this kind of testing. Test Automation helps to completely resolve and control these issues. Automated testing can be categorized into four; performance testing, safety testing, accuracy testing and testing of reliability. Using automation tools, steps involved in manual testing are being automated. These tools test the process and are targeted to the specific testing environment.
The Different Models In Software Testing
Software testing is the most crucial phase of software development. IEEE deﬁnition implies that ”software testing is the method of handling or evaluating a system by automatic or manual strategies to confirm that it satisﬁes requirements”. Software testing is crucial as it involves critical activities from unit, integration, system, acceptance testing. Following indications from testing models/standards and best practices, it is essential to improve the overall testing process. Nonetheless, there are still several organizations that do not observe best practices and conduct testing in a relevant way. Since the 1980s various test models have been designed for organisations to adopt and enhance testing.
The purpose of the models is to produce structured and systematic testing processes that are relevant to organizational needs. In literature, there are several terms while addressing formalization of a testing process, such as testing frameworks, testing improvement processes, testing models, testing standards, with the following deﬁnitions:
- The term testing framework is more often used in the sense of speciﬁc tools and practices applied for test creation.
- Software testing models and test improvement processes are frequently used conversely. However, there are two types of models that are distinguished for test process improvement: test improvement models (also called test maturity models)and content-based models.
- The base of test improvement models comprises testing best practices with the structure divided into multiple maturity levels.
- Content-based models represent various testing strategies in particular without showing any predeﬁned pathways for the development process in the form of distinct maturity levels.
The Most Widely Used Tools For Software Testing
Selecting a perfect tool for testing of software could be a difficult task sometimes considering the several factors to put into consideration before choosing a tool. The decision to choose a test tool is a basic factor in the achievement of test automation. This requires studying the extent of testing and test methodology, then afterward selecting the correct test tool that meets the necessities of automating test-suite for a specific item and release.
Selenium is an open-source testing system that is completely free and makes web application testing much easier. It works crosswise over different browsers and platforms like Windows, Mac, and Linux. Selenium encourages testers to complete tests in different programming languages such as
Selenium suite includes 4 essential segments;
- Selenium IDE
- Selenium RC
- Selenium Grid
It is planned in a manner to help and energize automation testing of functional parts of online applications. It can likewise be utilized to perform black-box testing on the web application
Robot Framework is also another open-source test automation framework.SeleniumLibrary is among one of the numerous test libraries that can be utilized with it. Created to act as a Robotic Process automation tool, the Robot Framework has developed to become a generic framework. Testers and Automation developers equally use this framework for software automation testing. Selenium WebDriver is the most widely adopted tool for implementing automation testing on web applications. To support the abilities of Selenium, the Robot Framework incorporates Selenium WebDriver functionality.
Most of the practical studies explain the adaptation of a model to the testing process and thus standardization of the process as the main improvement. The adoption of a testing model or tools can be inﬂuenced by the benefits and drawbacks of the model under certain circumstances. Besides the speciﬁc domain or various improvement procedures, models and testing tools provide several other unique advantages. In conclusion, we can say that there are many testing models with different characteristics that can fulﬁll the numerous requirements of organizations. However, for enterprises to complete testing on time and under budget, it is always better to select the appropriate approach based on the required objectives.