1. Introduction:
Let’s walk through an example of predictive analytics using a data set that most people can relate to:prices of cars. In this case, we have a data set with historical Toyota Corolla prices along with related car attributes.
Let’s load in the Toyota Corolla file and check out the first 5 lines to see what the data set looks like:
## Price Age KM FuelType HP MetColor Automatic CC Doors Weight
## 1 13500 23 46986 Diesel 90 1 0 2000 3 1165
## 2 13750 23 72937 Diesel 90 1 0 2000 3 1165
## 3 13950 24 41711 Diesel 90 1 0 2000 3 1165
## 4 14950 26 48000 Diesel 90 0 0 2000 3 1165
## 5 13750 30 38500 Diesel 90 0 0 2000 3 1170
Price, Age, KM(kilometers driven), Fuel Type, HP(horsepower), Automatic or Manual, Number of Doors, and Weight in pounds are the data collected in this file for Toyota Corollas.
In predictive models, there is a response variable(also called dependent variable), which is the variable that we are interested in predicting.
The independent variables(the predictors also called features in the machine learning community) are one or more numeric variables we are using to predict the response variable. Given we are using a linear regression model, we are assuming the relationship between the independent and dependent variables follow a straight line. In future posts, we will gradually increase the complexities of our models to see if it improves predictive powers.
But before we start our modeling exercise, it’s good to take a visual look at what we are trying to predict to see what it looks like. Since we are trying to predict Toyota Corolla prices with historical data, let’s do a simple histogram plot to see the distribution of Corolla prices:
## stat_bin: binwidth defaulted to range/30. Use 'binwidth = x' to adjust this.
We see that most used Corollas are around $10K and there are some at the tail end that over $25K. These might be newer cars with a lot of options. And there are fewer of them anyhow.
One of the main steps in the predictive analytics is data transformation. Data is never in the way you want them. One might have to do some kinds of transformations to get it to the way we need them to be either because the data is dirty, not of the type we want, out of bounds, and a host of other reasons.
In this case, we need to convert the categorical variables to numeric variables to feed into our linear regression model, because linear regression models only take numeric variables.
The categorical variable we want to do the transformation on is Fuel Types. We that there are 3 Fuel Types: 1) CNG 2) Diesel 3) Petrol
summary(corolla$FuelType)
## CNG Diesel Petrol
## 17 155 1264
So, we can convert the categorical variable Fuel Type to two numeric variables: FuelType1 and FuelType2. We assign CNG to a new variable FuelType1 in which a 1 represents it’s a CNG vehicle and 0 it’s not. Likewise, we assign Diesel to a new variable FuelType2 in which a 1 represents it’s a Diesel vehicle and 0 it’s not.
So, what do we do with PETROL vehicles? This is represented by the case when BOTH FuelType1 and FuelType2 are zero.
## Price Age KM HP MetColor Automatic CC Doors Weight FuelType1
## 1 13500 23 46986 90 1 0 2000 3 1165 0
## 2 13750 23 72937 90 1 0 2000 3 1165 0
## 3 13950 24 41711 90 1 0 2000 3 1165 0
## FuelType2
## 1 1
## 2 1
## 3 1
The next step in predictive analytics is to explore our underlying. Let’s do a few plots of our explantory variables to see how they look against Price.
Now that we have explored our variables, let’s a simple linear regression of Price against all the data we’ve collected.
##
## Call:
## lm(formula = Price ~ ., data = auto)
##
## Residuals:
## Min 1Q Median 3Q Max
## -10642.3 -737.7 3.1 731.3 6451.5
##
## Coefficients:
## Estimate Std. Error t value Pr(>|t|)
## (Intercept) -2.681e+03 1.219e+03 -2.199 0.028036 *
## Age -1.220e+02 2.602e+00 -46.889 < 2e-16 ***
## KM -1.621e-02 1.313e-03 -12.347 < 2e-16 ***
## HP 6.081e+01 5.756e+00 10.565 < 2e-16 ***
## MetColor 5.716e+01 7.494e+01 0.763 0.445738
## Automatic 3.303e+02 1.571e+02 2.102 0.035708 *
## CC -4.174e+00 5.453e-01 -7.656 3.53e-14 ***
## Doors -7.776e+00 4.006e+01 -0.194 0.846129
## Weight 2.001e+01 1.203e+00 16.629 < 2e-16 ***
## FuelType1 -1.121e+03 3.324e+02 -3.372 0.000767 ***
## FuelType2 2.269e+03 4.394e+02 5.164 2.75e-07 ***
## ---
## Signif. codes: 0 '***' 0.001 '**' 0.01 '*' 0.05 '.' 0.1 ' ' 1
##
## Residual standard error: 1316 on 1425 degrees of freedom
## Multiple R-squared: 0.8693, Adjusted R-squared: 0.8684
## F-statistic: 948 on 10 and 1425 DF, p-value: < 2.2e-16
We see from the output that our model prices 86.9%(see Multiple R square) of the variation in price using the explantory variables above. This is pretty decent.
However, we notice is that some coefficents are more statistically significant that others. For example, we find that Age is the most significant witha t-value of -46.889, followed by Weight with a t-value of 16.629. The least significant variables are Metallic Color and Number of Doors. This was also confirmed in our EDA graphs above.
Now, it’s generally NOT a good idea to use your ENTIRE data sample to fit the model. What we want to do is to train the model on a sample of the data. Then we’ll see how it perform outside of our training sample. This breaking up of our data set to training and test set is to evaluate the performance of our models with unseen data. Using the entire data set to build a model then using the entire data set to evaluate how good a model does is a bit of cheating or careless analytics.
Here is the results using the first 1000 rows of data as training sample.
##
## Call:
## lm(formula = Price ~ ., data = auto[train, ])
##
## Residuals:
## Min 1Q Median 3Q Max
## -8914.6 -778.2 -22.0 751.4 6480.4
##
## Coefficients:
## Estimate Std. Error t value Pr(>|t|)
## (Intercept) 5.337e+02 1.417e+03 0.377 0.706
## Age -1.233e+02 3.184e+00 -38.725 < 2e-16 ***
## KM -1.726e-02 1.585e-03 -10.892 < 2e-16 ***
## HP 5.472e+01 7.662e+00 7.142 1.78e-12 ***
## MetColor 1.581e+02 9.199e+01 1.719 0.086 .
## Automatic 2.703e+02 1.982e+02 1.364 0.173
## CC -3.634e+00 7.031e-01 -5.168 2.86e-07 ***
## Doors 3.828e+01 4.851e+01 0.789 0.430
## Weight 1.671e+01 1.379e+00 12.118 < 2e-16 ***
## FuelType1 -5.950e+02 4.366e+02 -1.363 0.173
## FuelType2 2.279e+03 5.582e+02 4.083 4.80e-05 ***
## ---
## Signif. codes: 0 '***' 0.001 '**' 0.01 '*' 0.05 '.' 0.1 ' ' 1
##
## Residual standard error: 1343 on 989 degrees of freedom
## Multiple R-squared: 0.8573, Adjusted R-squared: 0.8559
## F-statistic: 594.3 on 10 and 989 DF, p-value: < 2.2e-16
Interesting enough, the R-squared only changed nominally to 85.7% and the variables t-value also moved slightly onky. The statistically significant relationships remained the same. Good.
The real test of a good model is to test the model with data that it has not fitted. Here’s where the rubber meets the road. We apply our model to unseen data to see how it performs.
Here are some common metrics to see how well the model predicts using various error metrics. The main takeway is we want our forecast errors to be as small as possible. The smaller the forecast error the better the model is at predicting unseen data.
me
# mean error
ME is the mean error. The ideal ME is zero, which means on average the predicted value perfectly matches the actual value. This is rarely if ever the case. As in all things, we must determine what is an acceptable level of errors for our predictive analytics model and accept it. No such thing as a perfect model.
rmse
# root mean square error
## [1] 1283.097
RMSE is root mean squared error. A mean squared error(MSE) is the average of the squared differences between the predicted value and the actual value. The reason we square is to not account for sign differences(negative differences and positive differences are the same thing when squared). RMSE brings it back to our normal unit by taking the square root of MSE>
mape
# mean absolute percent error
## [1] 9.208957
MAPE stands for mean absolute percent error and express the forecast errors in percentages.
On average, our model had a forecast error of only 9.2%. Not bad for a first pass at this data set.
Hope you enjoyed this and are excited in applying predictive analytics models to your problem space.
In follow on blogs I’ll use the same data set but apply it with other predictive analytics methods and models to see how it performs.
Comment
Hi,
You wrote just before the conclusion "Not bad for a first pass at this dataset." How can we make further improvements??
That's very interesting and helpful. Looking forward to read and explore more.
Hi Peter,
Thank you for sharing your thoughts on the linear regression.
We have a categorical variable FuelType, which has types: 1) CNG 2) Diesel 3) Petrol
summary(corolla$FuelType)
## CNG Diesel Petrol
## 17 155 1264
18600,30,75889,Diesel,90,1,0,2000,3,1245
21500,27,19700,Petrol,192,0,0,1800,3,1185
7750,43,178858,CNG,110,0,0,1600,3,1084
I am a bit confused about your mapping of {CNG, Diesel, Petrol} to numeric values,
Thanks,
Mahmoud
Hi Peter, thank you for the great post. Please keep them coming!
Could you please post the code you used to create the output? Thank you.
Hi Peter,
A very interesting blog post. I am looking to do something similar for my final Econometrics research paper. I was curious as to how you got your hands on this data set. All help is greatly appreciated.
Best,
Jannik
Thanks, Peter. Very helpful.
Hi David,
I finally posted my data set on github. In fact, I've created a blog post that points to all of my data set on github. Bookmark that post since I'll continue to add more dataset to supporting future as well as past blog posts.
http://dataillumination.blogspot.com/2015/04/open-data-sets-for-my-...
Also, you can go back to the original blog post and find the github link since I went back and edit it to include the github link
If you do end up posting the data on your github account, can you provide link?
Posted 1 March 2021
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