It's a question I often wondered about as a child, as I marveled at NYC skyscrapers during my first visit there, or when I visited Cape Canaveral or the Golden Gate Bridge. I don't claim I will provide a full answer to this question in this short post. However, recently, I've been studying two types of tools that are very useful in handling the mindbogglingly numerous details of a complicated project. And I would like to tell you about those 2 tools here. So this is going to be a very limited answer to the question posed in the title, but still, I hope it will be an interesting answer.
The 2 tools I am referring to are:
Standard presentations of these 2 tools do not use Bayesian Networks. In the last week, I added 2 new chapters to my book Bayesuvius, one chapter for each of the above 2 tools. What I did was to translate both of those tools into Bayesian Networks. So now you can do PERT analysis and Reliability/Failure Analysis without leaving your B net comfort zone, using only B Nets.